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Why Are Some Cameras Rubbish at Taking Photos of Rainbows?

Why Are Some Cameras Rubbish at Taking Photos of Rainbows?

Camera sensors are incredibly complex pieces of engineering prowess, bringing together mankind’s attempt to replicate the behavior of the human eye in perceiving light, but there are still many limitations. Cameras are rarely good at capturing decent photographs of rainbows, but some cameras are significantly worse than others, thanks to a strange quirk of science.

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Is consciousness a battle between your beliefs and perceptions?

Imagine you’re at a magic show, in which the performer suddenly vanishes. Of course, you ultimately know that the person is probably just hiding somewhere. Yet it continues to look as if the person has disappeared. We can’t reason away that appearance, no matter what logic dictates. Why are our conscious experiences so stubborn?

The fact that our perception of the world appears to be so intransigent, however much we might reflect on it, tells us something unique about how our brains are wired. Compare the magician scenario with how we usually process information. Say you have five friends who tell you it’s raining outside, and one weather website indicating that it isn’t. You’d probably just consider the website to be wrong and write it off. But when it comes to conscious perception, there seems to be something strangely persistent about what we see, hear and feel. Even when a perceptual experience is clearly ‘wrong’, we can’t just mute it.

Why is that so? Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) shed new light on this puzzle. In computer science, we know that neural networks for pattern-recognition – so-called deep learning models – can benefit from a process known as predictive coding. Instead of just taking in information passively, from the bottom up, networks can make top-down hypotheses about the world, to be tested against observations. They generally work better this way. When a neural network identifies a cat, for example, it first develops a model that allows it to predict or imagine what a cat looks like. It can then examine any incoming data that arrives to see whether or not it fits that expectation.

The trouble is, while these generative models can be super efficient once they’re up and running, they usually demand huge amounts of time and information to train. One solution is to use generative adversarial networks (GANs) – hailed as the ‘coolest idea in deep learning in the last 20 years’ by Facebook’s head of AI research Yann LeCun. In GANs, we might train one network (the generator) to create pictures of cats, mimicking real cats as closely as it can. And we train another network (the discriminator) to distinguish between the manufactured cat images and the real ones. We can then pit the two networks against each other, such that the discriminator is rewarded for catching fakes, while the generator is rewarded for getting away with them. When they are set up to compete, the networks grow together in prowess, not unlike an arch art-forger trying to outwit an art expert. This makes learning very efficient for each of them.

As well as a handy engineering trick, GANs are a potentially useful analogy for understanding the human brain. In mammalian brains, the neurons responsible for encoding perceptual information serve multiple purposes. For example, the neurons that fire when you see a cat also fire when you imagine or remember a cat; they can also activate more or less at random. So whenever there’s activity in our neural circuitry, the brain needs to be able to figure out the cause of the signals, whether internal or external.

We can call this exercise perceptual reality monitoring. John Locke, the 17th-century British philosopher, believed that we had some sort of inner organ that performed the job of sensory self-monitoring. But critics of Locke wondered why Mother Nature would take the trouble to grow a whole separate organ, on top of a system that’s already set up to detect the world via the senses. You have to be able to smell something before you can go about deciding whether or not the perception is real or fake; so why not just build in a check to the detecting mechanism itself?

In light of what we now know about GANs, though, Locke’s idea makes a certain amount of sense. Because our perceptual system takes up neural resources, parts of it get recycled for different uses. So imagining a cat draws on the same neuronal patterns as actually seeing one. But this overlap muddies the water regarding the meaning of the signals. Therefore, for the recycling scheme to work well, we need a discriminator to decide when we are seeing something versus when we’re merely thinking about it. This GAN-like inner sense organ – or something like it – needs to be there to act as an adversarial rival, to stimulate the growth of a well-honed predictive coding mechanism.

If this account is right, it’s fair to say that conscious experience is probably akin to a kind of logical inference. That is, if the perceptual signal from the generator says there is a cat, and the discriminator decides that this signal truthfully reflects the state of the world right now, we naturally see a cat. The same goes for raw feelings: pain can feel sharp, even when we know full well that nothing is poking at us, and patients can report feeling pain in limbs that have already been amputated. To the extent that the discriminator gets things right most of the time, we tend to trust it. No wonder that when there’s a conflict between subjective impressions and rational beliefs, it seems to make sense to believe what we consciously experience.

This perceptual stubbornness is not just a feature of humans. Some primates have it too, as shown by their capacity to be amazed and amused by magic tricks. That is, they seem to understand that there’s a tension between what they’re seeing and what they know to be true. Given what we understand about their brains – specifically, that their perceptual neurons are also ‘recyclable’ for top-down functioning – the GAN theory suggests that these nonhuman animals probably have conscious experiences not dissimilar to ours.

The future of AI is more challenging. If we built a robot with a very complex GAN-style architecture, would it be conscious? On the basis of our theory, it would probably be capable of predictive coding, exercising the same machinery for perception as it deploys for top-down prediction or imagination. Perhaps like some current generative networks, it could ‘dream’. Like us, it probably couldn’t reason away its pain – and it might even be able to appreciate stage magic.

Theorising about consciousness is notoriously hard, and we don’t yet know what it really consists in. So we wouldn’t be in a position to establish if our robot was truly conscious. Then again, we can’t do this with any certainty with respect to other animals either. At least by fleshing out some conjectures about the machinery of consciousness, we can begin
to test them against our intuitions – and, more importantly, in experiments. What we do know is that a model of the mind involving an inner mechanism of doubt – a nit-picking system that’s constantly on the lookout for fakes and forgeries in perception – is one of the most promising ideas we’ve come up with so far.

Hakwan Lau

This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons.

The post Is consciousness a battle between your beliefs and perceptions? appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

The Maths of Life and Death

 

Q & A with Kit Yates:

Maths is an unloved subject. It’s a commonplace view that maths is hard, that maths is abstract and removed from everyday concerns. Why do you think that is?

There’s no doubt that maths is perceived as polarising; despised by many and loved by just a few. As a mathematician interested in sharing the wonders of my subject, my biggest struggle is with this self-imposed false dichotomy: those who believe that they can do maths and those who think they can’t. There are far too many of the latter. But there is almost no-one who understands no maths at all, no-one who cannot count. At the other extreme, for hundreds of years there have been no mathematicians who understand all of known mathematics. We all sit somewhere on this spectrum; how far we travel to the left or to the right depends on how much we think this knowledge can be useful to us. Exposing the uses and importance of maths in everyday life is one way to shift people along the spectrum, to bring them into the middle ground.

This is exactly what I’ve tried to do in my book. It’s important to say upfront that The Maths of Life and Death is not a not a maths book. Nor is it a book for mathematicians. There isn’t a single equation in it. The point of the book is not to bring back memories of the school mathematics lessons you might have given up years ago. Quite the opposite. If you’ve ever been disenfranchised and made to feel that you can’t take part in mathematics or aren’t good at it, consider this book an emancipation.

I genuinely believe that maths is for everyone and that we can all appreciate the beautiful mathematics at the heart of the complicated phenomena we experience daily. If you’ve ever been made to feel that you can’t comprehend maths or aren’t good at it, I say this: you are experiencing it all the time, perhaps without even knowing it. Mathematics, at its most fundamental, is pattern. If you spot a motif in the fractal branches of a tree, or in the multi-fold symmetry of a snowflake, then you are seeing maths. When you tap your foot in time to a piece of music, or when your voice reverberates and resonates as you sing in the shower, you are hearing maths. If you bend a shot into the back of the net or catch a cricket ball on its parabolic trajectory, then you are doing maths. Part of the job I undertake in the book is to highlight the places where people are using maths, intuitively, perhaps without even realising it.

Unfortunately, all too often, mathematics is viewed as a sterile, abstract subject: at best an esoteric plaything for out-of-touch academics, and at worst a waste of school children’s time and taxpayers’ money. Few explanations of everyday mathematics filter through to non-specialists. Instead they are told that mathematics is inaccessible and inscrutable. Mathematics is often lauded for its beauty, its purity, its abstraction and otherworldliness; untainted by the messy details of reality. But for me, an applied mathematician, mathematics is first and foremost a practical tool to make sense of our complex world. Mathematical modelling can give us an advantage in everyday situations, and it doesn’t have to comprise hundreds of tedious equations or lines of computer code to do so. In fact, the simplest models are stories and analogies. For me, the stories that comprise this book – the most basic models – are the most useful of all. When viewed through the right lens we can tease out the hidden mathematical rules that underlie our common experiences.

Is this attitude to maths changing?

I think societal changes are slowly altering attitude towards the importance of maths. As our economies change, there is growing awareness that we need more mathematicians, engineers and scientists to fill the increasing numbers of jobs in the technology sector. To some degree this is reflected in maths’ rise to becoming the most popular A-level choice. This rise in popularity has also impacted on the number of students continuing to study mathematics in higher education. I always tell students who come to visit my department at open days, and who are trying to make up their mind about whether to study maths or not, that by studying maths they will only open doors for themselves and never close them. It’s so easy to jump out of mathematics and into another discipline, but much harder to go back the other way.

For example, I myself am a mathematical biologist. When I tell people this, the reaction I get is usually a polite nodding of the head accompanied by an awkward silence, as if I was about to test them on their recall of the quadratic formula or Pythagoras’ theorem. More than simply being daunted, people struggle to understand how a subject like maths, which they perceive as being abstract, pure and ethereal, can have anything to do with a subject like biology, which is typically thought of as being practical, messy and pragmatic.

I dropped biology at sixth-form and took A-levels in maths, further maths, physics and chemistry. When I went to university, I had to further streamline my subjects, and felt sad that I had to leave biology behind forever; a subject I thought had incredible power to change lives for the better. I was hugely excited about the opportunity to plunge myself into the world of mathematics, but I couldn’t help worrying that I was taking on a subject that seemed to have very few practical applications. I couldn’t have been more wrong.

Whilst I plodded through the pure maths we were taught at university I lived for the applied maths courses. I listened to lecturers as they demonstrated the maths that engineers use to build bridges so that they don’t resonate and collapse in the wind, or to design wings that ensure planes don’t fall out of the sky. I learned the quantum mechanics that physicists use to understand the strange goings-on at subatomic scales and the theory of special relativity that explores the strange consequences of the invariance of the speed of light. I took courses explaining the ways in which we use mathematics in chemistry, in finance and in economics. I read about how we use mathematics in sport to enhance the performance of our top athletes and how we use mathematics in the movies to create computer-generated images of scenes that couldn’t exist in reality. In short, I learned that mathematics can be used to describe almost everything.

I think as people start to see the way in which mathematics is increasingly pervading their everyday lives and to understand how even a little mathematical knowledge can be of benefit in real life, its importance will be increasingly realized. I also believe that when students see that there is a point to the maths they are being taught, rather than just rote learning to pass an exam, that maths can be transformed into something enjoyable.

This is what the Maths of Life and Death is all about. I try to convince the reader that maths is so much more than the esoteric subject they left behind at school. It is the false alarms that play on our minds and the false confidence that helps us sleep at night; the stories pushed at us on social media and the memes that spread through it. Maths is the loopholes in the law and the needle that closes them; the technology that saves lives and the mistakes that put them at risk; the outbreak of a deadly disease and the best way to control it. It is the best hope we have of answering the most fundamental questions about the enigmas of the cosmos and the mysteries of our own species. It leads us on the myriad paths of our lives and lies in wait, just beyond the veil, to stare back at us as we draw our final breaths.

A common everyday use of maths is in shopping – a trip to the greengrocer is one of the most cited examples in school maths teaching – but what are some other everyday, and more unusual uses of maths?

It’s funny you should mention shopping, because there’s actually so much more maths to shopping than just working out your change. For example, stores have traditionally over-represented price tags which end in .99, .95 or .90. In the UK .99 is the third most common price ending after .00 and .50. The marketing theory goes that because we read left to right we take account of the first digits on price tags, but ignore everything to the right of the decimal point. Unwittingly we are being tricked into thinking products are cheaper than they are because our brains are always subconsciously rounding down. In the book I also provide a nice rule of thumb called ‘the 37% rule’ which uses the maths of optimisation to help you join the shortest queue in the supermarket.

Of course there are so many more places where maths appears in everyday life. In the book, we explore the true stories of life-changing events in which the application (or misapplication) of mathematics has played a critical role: patients crippled by faulty genes and entrepreneurs bankrupt by faulty algorithms; innocent victims of miscarriages of justice and the unwitting victims of software glitches. I follow stories of investors who have lost fortunes and parents who have lost children, all because of mathematical misunderstanding. I wrestle with ethical dilemmas from screening to statistical subterfuge and examine pertinent societal issues such as political referenda, disease prevention, criminal justice and artificial intelligence. I show that mathematics has something profound or significant to say on all of these subjects, and more.

Rather than just pointing out the places in which maths might crop up, I also try to arm the reader with simple mathematical rules and tools which can help them in their everyday life: from getting the best seat on the train, to keeping one’s head when on the receiving end of an unexpected test result from the doctor. I suggest simple ways to avoid making numerical mistakes and get my hands dirty with newsprint when untangling the figures behind the headlines. I also get up close and personal with the maths behind consumer genetics and display maths in action as I highlight the steps we can all be taking to help halt the spread of deadly diseases.

What are some of the benefits of a better understanding of maths?

A little mathematical knowledge in our increasingly quantitative society can help us to harness the power of numbers for ourselves. Simple rules allow us to make the best choices and avoid the worst mistakes. Small alterations in the way we think about our rapidly evolving environments help us to ‘keep calm’ in the face of rapidly accelerating change, or adapt to our increasingly automated realities. Basic models of our actions, reactions and interactions can prepare us for the future before it arrives. The stories relating other people’s experiences are, in my view, the simplest and most powerful models of all. They allow us to learn from the mistakes of our predecessors so that, before we embark on any numerical expedition, we ensure we are all speaking the same language, have synchronised our watches, and checked we’ve got enough fuel in the tank.

Half the battle for mathematical empowerment is daring to question the perceived authority of those who wield the weapons – shattering the illusion of certainty. Appreciating absolute and relative risks, ratio biases, mismatched framing and bias gives us the power to be sceptical of the statistics screamed from newspaper headlines, the ‘studies’ pushed at us in adverts or the half-truths that come tumbling from the mouths of our politicians. Recognising mathematical sleights of hand allows us to disperse obfuscating smoke screens, making it harder to fool us with mathematical arguments, be they in the courtroom, the classroom or the clinic.

We must ensure that the person with the most shocking statistics doesn’t always win the argument, by demanding an explanation of the maths behind the figures. We shouldn’t let medical charlatans delay us from receiving potentially life-saving treatment when benefits their alternative therapies are just a mathematical anomaly. We mustn’t let anti-vaxxers make us doubt the efficacy of vaccinations, when mathematics demonstrates that they can save vulnerable lives and wipe out disease.

As I hope I show throughout the book, it is time for us to take the power back into our own hands, because sometimes maths really is a matter of life and death.

………………………….

https://kityates.com

 

The post The Maths of Life and Death appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

Neuroscience Kung Fu: Use Contrast to Immediately Guide the Eye to the Most Critical Elements of Your Images

Neuroscience Kung Fu: Use Contrast to Immediately Guide the Eye to the Most Critical Elements of Your Images

Contrast extraction is one of the most important aspects of visual processing. It plays a tremendous role in how we view images, where our eyes are drawn to first, and where they linger. In this article we’ll learn a few simple tricks to create more engaging photographs — and why they work.

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Ethical Wildlife Photography Tips From National Geographic

Ethical Wildlife Photography Tips From National Geographic

We all want to get that stunning animal-in-the-wild shot but it’s not always possible or easy to do so. That’s when many photographers take shortcuts, and it’s not always the best idea.

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Why Does the Vibrancy Slider Feel So Good!?

Why Does the Vibrancy Slider Feel So Good!?

What do oversize truck tailpipes, paleolithic sculpture, and the vibrancy slider have in common? And what might they have to do with helping us create more engaging photographs? Why do some abstract paintings move you and others don’t? Why should we react to an abstract work of art at all?

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Mexican Physicist Solves 2,000-Year Old Problem That Will Lead to Cheaper and Sharper Lenses

Mexican Physicist Solves 2,000-Year Old Problem That Will Lead to Cheaper and Sharper Lenses

In most lenses, the center of the frame might be razor-sharp, but the corners and edges always appear a little soft. It’s something that’s been a problem for thousands of years within optical devices, with many researchers giving up hope until a recent breakthrough from a Mexican physicist, who has now developed a formula that will change how lenses are manufactured.

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Do Your Eyes See in 4K?

Do Your Eyes See in 4K?

War of the resolutions again. This time it’s a bit different. It’s not about the benefits of 4K or 8K for the filmmaker or a photographer, but for the consumer. The question is: can the “resolution” of your eyes match 4K?

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How Scientists Accurately Colorize Hubble Telescope Images of Space

How Scientists Accurately Colorize Hubble Telescope Images of Space

The Hubble telescope has provided us some of the greatest images of the observable universe we’ve ever seen, but they’re black and white as standard. So how do scientists know what color to make them?

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Missing Mass

Carey Young: Missing Mass, 2010 (installation view) 5,461 dark matter particles present in perspex container, on pedestal with silkscreened text container: 18 x 18 x 18 in. (45.7 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) pedestal: 38 x 18 x 18 in. (96.5 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) © Carey Young. Courtesy Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

Missing Mass (2010) is a sculptural work created with the scientific guidance of Prof. Malcolm Fairbairn, an astrophysicist based at King’s College London. The piece ‘presents’ a specific number of dark matter particles alongside a legal disclaimer which proposes the particles as the only truly free entities in existence. The work centres on the idea of artistic freedom, suggesting that if dark matter particles are the only free entities in existence, by implication, art, the artist, and any other societal or cultural element held to be symbolic of freedom, are merely constrained, whether by gravity, bureaucracy, institutional ties, etc. The work also proposes links between sculptural works associated with Minimalism and Conceptual Art (such as the early work of Hans Haacke) and contemporary developments in astrophysics.

The work was developed through a research process which involved regular meetings with Dr. Fairbairn, plus an astrophysics reading list, which necessitated five months of study. From this process I derived the idea for the work, as well as others including Terminal Velocity.

Carey Young Missing Mass, 2010 (detail) 5,461 dark matter particles present in perspex container, on pedestal with silkscreened text container: 18 x 18 x 18 in. (45.7 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) pedestal: 38 x 18 x 18 in. (96.5 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) Photo: Thierry Bal. © Carey Young. Courtesy Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

The text on the plinth says:

Carey Young
2010
5,461 dark matter particles present in perspex container, 18 x 18 x 18 inches.*

* Disclaimer

  1. i) Dark matter particles are governed by their own laws and may circulate freely.ii)  The figure of 5461 dark matter particles represents an average according to current scientific thinking. Actual amounts may vary from time to time.iii)  Dark matter is transparent and undetectable to the human eye.iv)  Since dark matter may at any time pass through any surrounding man-made or natural structures, including the walls of this container, your body, and the whole material structure of the planet, any collector of this work should not expect to own the same 5,461 dark matter particles at any one time.

Carey Young Missing Mass, 2010 (detail) 5,461 dark matter particles present in perspex container, on pedestal with silkscreened text container: 18 x 18 x 18 in. (45.7 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) pedestal: 38 x 18 x 18 in. (96.5 x 45.7 x 45.7 cm) Photo: Steven Probert. © Carey Young. Courtesy Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

………………..

Artist Statement

Since 2003, visual artist Carey Young has developed a number of artworks that are also functional legal instruments, and which have conceptualised and explored law as an artistic medium. Young collaborates with legal advisors to make artworks in installation, video, performance, print, sculpture and photography, which have been exhibited internationally. These works have embodied such diverse forms as contracts, disclaimers, offers, licenses, cautionary statements and a will, and addressed disparate legal fields including human rights, inheritance law, intellectual property and law relating to outer space. Experimenting with ideas of time, space and physicality, Young’s body of artistic work explores law as a separate kind of ‘reality’, one with its own inherent subjectivities and points of breakdown.

……………………

www.careyyoung.com

 

The post Missing Mass appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

Researchers Create Contact Lens That Works Like a Zoom Lens, Controlled by Blinking

Researchers Create Contact Lens That Works Like a Zoom Lens, Controlled by Blinking

A new contact lens that works in the same manner as an advanced zoom lens for the human eye has been revealed by scientists. Reports claim users can zoom simply by blinking, or looking around.

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Voices

Aura Satz: The Trembling Line. Film and multi-channel sound installation, 2015

Richard Bright: Can we begin by you saying something about your background?

Aura Satz: I studied cultural studies and art history in Bologna (Italy) before coming to London to do a PhD by theory/practice at the Slade School of Fine Art. Initially I worked with sculpture and performance but over the last 20 years or so I have become more invested in film and sound. My works operate in constellations, I have a central theme which might manifest in multiple formats, as films, performances, sound works, and so on.

RB: Have there been any particular influences to your art practice?

AS: I was very much influenced by Lis Rhodes who taught me at the Slade, and whom I have since collaborated with. Intergenerational conversations are extremely important to me. I have been teaching for around 20 years now, and I get a lot of inspiration from my students. Teaching also keeps me attuned to practices outside of my own. In my undergraduate studies I was particularly fascinated by iconoclasm and theories of the image based on contact relics. I suppose this has carried through in my later works which attempt to look closely at technologies, prying the apparatus apart, as well as my interest in technologies of sound writing, such as the phonograph – where the groove is a trace and relic of the voice, so to speak. I have always been inspired by female voices, and there are a number of women composers who are key sources of inspiration. I often think of some of the more dialogic works I have made with people such as Lis Rhodes, Laurie Spiegel, Pauline Oliveros, as an opportunity to go deeper into the conversation, not just through the encounter, the film or the recording of a verbal exchange, but even later in the editing process, where I spend a lot of time listening and composing to the cadence of speech or a pause for breath.

Aura Satz: Her Marks a Measure

RB: What is the underlying focus of your work?

AS: I keep returning to the notion of a distributed, expanded and shared notion of voice. Works are made in conversation and use dialogue as both method and subject matter. In my works which draw on historical research I see myself in dialogic exchange with past voices, speaking backwards and forwards, being spoken through. When I have focussed on technologies of sound writing, recording and playback, it is precisely because I am interested in ways in which voices carry through, have been under-heard, and can be ‘listened into speech’. Many previous works focussed on minor histories, using archival research as a starting point, but in recent years I have shifted from the idea of notation of the past towards a logic that is more aligned with a visual or verbal score, an open invitation to think towards possible future manifestations. A score implies a non-hierarchical generosity, suggesting multiple future iterations and no singular privileged way of performing or enacting. Some scores simply suggest a shift in focus, such as Oliveros’ suggestion to listen with the soles of your feet. Many of my works could be read as an invitation to recalibrate attention, ways in which we give it, what is deemed worthy of it, how we might enact a different modality of attention, what we conceive of as foreground and what is background.

Aura Satz: Ventriloqua

RB: You began working with sound, with the piece Ventriloqua, in 2003 when you were pregnant. A number of your later works are to do with acoustic devices and vibration. Can you give some examples of these works?

AS: In Ventriloqua my pregnant belly became an instrument, a medium or antenna of sorts for a thereminist to play the electromagnetic waves. I wore a red outfit that covered all of my body, including my face, and the only visible part was the belly, which looked like an oracular eye or a breast of sorts. Through the trope of ventri-loquism (belly-speaking) I was able to explore the possibility of becoming a conduit for other voices. For me that performance was a powerful manifestation of speaking and being spoken through. In other works such as Automamusic (2008), Sound Seam (2010) Onomatopoeic Alphabet (2010), Vocal Flame (2011) and In and Out of Synch (2012) I focussed on devices such as orchestrions, mechanical music, phonographs, Chladni Plate, Ruben’s tube and optical sound on film as technologies of sound visualisation, some of which manifest sound patterns without quite constituting a notation system or code, and others which encrypt sound in order for it to be read back by a machine rather than a human. All of these enabled me to explore voices that align, interfere, interweave, synchronise, overlap, overwrite, hover between signal and noise, between decipherable meaning and the unfamiliar and as yet unencoded.

Aura Satz: Vocal Flame, 2012

 

Aura Satz: Sound Seam, 2010 (installation view)

In Sound Seam for example we worked with the surface noises of wax cylinders and vinyl glitch, as well as generating many layers of sounds by recording voices over each other.  At the same time there is something about seeing as informed by hearing, and vice versa, a listening that is in tension with the visible, that I find incredibly generative. This became central to In and Out of Synch, the 16mm film co-scripted and co-voiced with Lis Rhodes, where the optical sound on film patterns conveying our voices are ruptured by stroboscopic effects, due to a deliberate subtle misalignment of the monitoring eyepiece. You end up with a kind of Rorschach effect, certain sounds are punctuated or counteracted by the visual, and their respective rhythms generate a friction that is useful in unsettling standardized readings, making us hear or see differently.

Aura Satz: In and Out of Synch

RB: When did you begin to prioritise film-making and why?

AS: Initially I used film to document performances. When I made Automamusic in 2008 I realised that the only way to get inside these multiple mechanical music devices (which were housed in a museum in a small town in Switzerland), the best method of access to open them up and reconfigure them, was through the camera and the juxtaposition of sound patterns with visual rhythms. In other projects I found that there’s a kind of close-up looking and listening that can only be achieved through film. In my films I am keen to foreground sound, often it becomes the driving force, literally the engine driving the visuals or setting the rhythmic pace of the film. This is true of all of the sound visualisation films mentioned above, as well as a more recent project Preemptive Listening (2018), where the voice triggers an emergency rotating light. A film might feature moments of darkness or silence to allow for the senses to cross-pollinate, the eyes to take on the role of the ears or the other way around. I like the idea of an anagrammatic remapping of the senses, a disruption of hierarchies, a destabilizing of relations, of what is perceived, how, where, by who.

Aura Satz: Preemptive Listening (part 1 The Fork in the Road), 2018, installation view (photo Adam Reich)

RB: As well as exploring different techniques for visualizing sound, a number of your works focus on gender and women’s important contributions to technology. I’m thinking particularly of Oramics: Atlantis Anew (2011), Doorway for Natalie Kalmus (2013) and She Recalibrates (2018).  Can you say something about these works?

AS: Part of my commitment to the notion of a distributed voice is an unsettling of which voices are allowed, amplified within the range of the audible, who gets heard, who is written into the canon of history, and how can we destabilise these readings to allow for new voices to emerge. The film about Daphne Oram was central to my thinking on sound writing as a form of instantiating a new language or notation system, a new soundscape and in turn a new kind of listening.

 

Aura Satz: She Recalibrates (Pauline Oliveros), 2018 (photo Thierry Bal)

She Recalibrates follows on from this by focussing on women composers working with electronic music such as Laurie Spiegel, Pauline Oliveros, Eliane Radigue, Maryanne Amacher and others, who are portrayed with their hands on a dial, engaged in an experimental type of listening, modulating electricity, recalibrating what is considered noise or signal, what is worthy of being heard, and what can be understood as music. Their hands and ears are literally partaking in the circuit, tuning and recalibrating the signal. I made series of pencil drawings of hands on dials, framed inside a Fresnel lens which generates a diffractive pattern from the centre. The drawings only appear at a certain angle, due to the silver effect of graphite pencil on black paper, but also because the lens incorporates the interference of light reflections. It’s like looking at a lenticular print, or, more accurately, a CD or vinyl record with a diffractive centre, the image is continually changing according to the position of the viewer and the angle of light.  This is emblematic of what I try to do in all my works, allowing for an entangled space between voices, between signal and noise, for both to appear as method and subject matter.

Aura Satz: Tuning Interference on a Dark Matter Radio, 2019

RB: You are taking part in the Science Gallery, London exhibition ‘Dark Matter: 95% of the Universe is missing’, with a sound work Tuning Interference: Dark Matter Radio. Can you say something about your involvement in this?

AS: The curator Sandra Ross commissioned me to make a sound work responding to the theme of dark matter, under the guidance of the astrophysicist Prof. Malcolm Fairbairn, who invited Prof. David (Doddy) J.E. Marsh into the collaboration. I was really inspired by the way some of the experiments have been described as listening out for a signal that has not yet appeared. In particular I was drawn to the description of ADMX, one of many dark matter research initiatives (and a number of related experiments operating in Korea, Europe, and the USA), as “a radio that looks for a radio station, but we don’t know its frequency. We turn the knob slowly while listening. Ideally we will hear a tone when the frequency is right.[1] I wanted to work with this notion of experimental listening by making a sonic diagram of sorts, which would evoke a tuning experience. Together with Malcom and Doddy, as well as audio engineer/music AI specialist Dr. David Ronan who sonified the data, we made a 10 channel sound installation which renders a current hypothetical simulation of dark matter into sound. Essentially the sound patterns are a set of relations between the data, and we mapped it in such a way so as to generate intense psychoacoustic effects in the listeners, exploring sonic equivalents of interference and collision through beat frequencies and other diffractive qualities which shift according to the listener’s location. The listener becomes a radio dial of sorts, as the ears move through the soundscape, micro-tuning with each adjustment. It’s not dissimilar to the effect I described with the Fresnel lens framed drawings. There is no ideal vantage point or listening sweet spot, the listener is embedded within the sound, effectively generating the sound according to their orientation within the speaker ring.

Doddy showed me some visualisations of the simulation of dark matter in a hypothetical galaxy, and it looked like ripples of water or waves diffracting. This particular model of dark matter simulated contains waves[2], and we used speed and density to generate the shape of the harmonic structure. We chose the spacing of the speakers around the ring to be close to one wavelength, so that the coherence between speakers is audible, and yet varies in an interesting way around the ring. I wanted to create a soundscape that felt like a field of vibration and flux, with clusters of density, moments of tension and relief. Close frequency alignment and interference became a compositional principle, much like a kind of acoustic moiré. The arrangement of the speakers reflects the distribution of dark matter, so what you are hearing is not the sound of dark matter per se, but the hypothetical flux and motion of dark matter as rendered through sound. Each speaker is one point of data in the simulation, and if you listen close-up you will hear a singular slow-changing drone rather than all the beat frequencies that occur in the centre of the ring where the sounds interact with each other. Sometimes the wave shape of one point of data is extremely close to another, changing at a variable rate, and this alignment generates a sense of dense patterning, a pulse which gradually accelerates, intensifies, shifts focus and recedes. The sound is sculpted into a rippling flux which gathers and dissipates in such a way that is hard to hold onto or memorise. You can’t possibly internalise the rhythm of the piece, and each listening session will sound quite different from the previous one as your ears fabricate new acoustic illusions, adjust to the sounds, are de-sensitized or fatigued. I spent months tweaking the composition and by the end of a long session I wasn’t sure what I was hearing anymore, what was in between the speakers and what was between my ears.

RB: In terms of the viewer, what are you trying to communicate in this exhibition?

AS: I am interested in the ways in which scientific research activates or distorts a certain intuitive understanding of the world, and I try to find a way to make this come across on a very physical level, as visual or sonic experience. I wanted people to feel enmeshed within a dynamic rotational flow or current, something that can be sensed but which we don’t necessarily have the theoretical frameworks to account for. I find it fascinating that in current research on dark matter we are at a point of knowing unknowing, so to speak – we don’t know what exactly we are looking for and we haven’t yet identified what it is, all we know for certain is that its presence is somehow implied through the way it interacts or interferes with matter. Without dark matter many previously accepted theories are untenable, and as such it both disrupts and holds together different hypothetical theories.

I think the piece also conveys some of my previous concerns around modes of attention, a continuous retuning and recalibrating of what is heard and where one is positioned in relation to the signal or the noise (or what is understood as which). The idea of acoustic moiré – a morphing non-hierarchical, almost untethered grid – resonates with my interest in a multiplicity of voices which align and interfere with each other, activating the spaces in between. This is the reason I am drawn to work with sound – already at a very basic level it is doing the work as a vibratory in-between, as inherently relational, unsettling boundaries.

In addition to the speaker ring, I wanted a visual marker to provide a distinct sense of oscillation, that you are entering a vibratory sound field, so between each speaker there is a VU metre driven by the sound. The needle trembles to echo the volatile, dynamic and ever-changing frequency fields, though what exactly is being measured remains uncertain (the metres are blank and have no numbers).

Aura Satz, ‘Vera Rubin’s Irrefutable Evidence’, 2019

Nearby hangs a photo of Vera Rubin (1928-2016). Rubin was an American astronomer who discovered the galaxy rotation problem, providing evidence of the existence of dark matter. In the photo she is seen looking through a spectrograph mounted on the end of the telescope, recording an image of the spectrum (colours) of a small section of a galaxy. It’s quite an obscure image, in that she is wearing a hooded coat, so hardly any parts of her face or body are identifiable. Like the series She Recalibrates mentioned earlier, the image is framed inside a Fresnel lens, generating a diffractive pattern emanating from the centre, the point between her eye and the eyepiece of the telescope. The viewer has to somehow tune into the image for it to surface in amidst all the diffractive interferences and light play. It’s not central to the main piece, but I wanted to include Rubin as I think of the artwork as a space for naming, reconfiguring the canon, putting an underacknowledged female scientist into the conversation.

RB: In your view, what are the lines that connect art and science?

AS: I don’t think I could ever provide a definitive answer. The part that interests me from my recent experiences is the way in which both science and art ask questions and destabilise our current understanding of the world. Both are a response to curiosity and uncertainty, and can give us some orientation towards the future. Recalibration is key, an openness to change and a resistance to standardization.

Aura Satz: ‘Listen, Recalibrate’, solo show installation view, Fridman Gallery (photo Adam Reich)

RB: What other projects are you currently working on?

AS: For some years now I have been working on a project entitled Preemptive Listening, which looks at emergency signals and siren sounds. I read the siren as a specific kind of sound, one that requires attention, and demands an action or response. Citizens respond to its call, demonstrating obedience to its authority – it is a sound that commands submission, deflection, dispersion. It attracts in order to dispel, unsettles and resettles. It demands localized attention, and is the sonic architect of social order. It is a sonic marker that structures urban spaces in an emergency, a marker between future danger and dangers past, projecting a trajectory and expelling obstacles along the way. As the primary vocalization of the state, it articulates our relationship to power and civil order. All of which makes it fascinating, complex and in dire need of a re-wiring. My invitation is to pry it apart and recompose the siren, to think of it as a sound signal that requires recalibration. I am attempting to reimagine the siren sound: how can we open and destabilize this overly codified, prescriptive and stable semantic sound by taking a compositional approach, remapping new readings onto new sounds, how can we unlearn the existing code, find ways to listen differently, resist the hypervigilant, predetermined, automated call to obedience and set the intention to be curious, open, receptive, imaginative. If one remaps the sound, explores the possibility of different emotional registers, one can in turn generate distinct affective responses, more varied strategies for crisis management, and attend to a spectrum of different voices in need of our attention. And in our multiple modes of response, we might in turn enact an altered relationships to power.

[1] https://www.futurity.org/dark-matter-axions-detector-1726622/

[2]  Simulations performed at the University of Goettingen by Mr Jan Veltmaat, Dr Bodo Schwabe, and Prof Jens Niemeyer.

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https://www.iamanagram.com/

All images copyright and courtesy of Aura Satz

 

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Cartoon Logic

Andy Holden: Laws of Motion in a Cartoon Landscape. Print No.4

Richard Bright: Can we begin by you saying something about your background?

Andy Holden: How far back should I go? I’ve just started reading Tristram Shandy and maybe I should go back to before I was born and start there. I wish either my father or my mother, or indeed both of them, as they were in duty both equally bound to it, had minded what they were about when they begot me; had they duly consider’d how much depended upon what they were then doing;–that not only the production of a rational Being was concerned in it, but that possibly the happy formation and temperature of his body, perhaps his genius and the very cast of his mind… I make art, in various forms, and have done since art-school, and did so before that, and made a few exhibitions in Public Houses. My Grandma collected ceramic cats and that was a big influence, my father is a bird-watcher by trade, which was initially not an influence, but now is crucial to what I do and resulted in us making an exhibition called Natural Selection together. I get my energy and the more social aspects of my personality from my mum, who did all manner of jobs. I also play music with my band the Grubby Mitts which we have been doing for a long term but struggle to get the music heard. I still live in Bedford where I grew up. I once started a failed art-movement called Maximum Irony! Maximum Sincerity, or MI!MS. Some of this sort of information filters into my art work, some of it gets used directly, some sincerely, some ironically, but non of it in itself is that interesting. I feel increasingly silly for having put as much of that information into my work as I have, but all of it informs how I see things and so I had to try and understand that filter that these biographical facts create, so I might know my own umwelt.

Andy Holden: Towards a Unified Thoery of MIMS, Zabludowicz Collection, installation view, 2013

RB: Have there been any particular influences to your art practice?

AH: There are a number of interaction with art works that in hindsight were pivotal. Some of these were seeing friends make things, particularly my group of friends that as teenagers tried with me to make MI!MS, especially the music they were writing. There were bolts of divine inspiration, the clouds parting and rays of light cutting through and the ground below gentle trembling from encounters with Andy Warhol paintings when I was about 14, as I saw a show at Tate and felt totally comfortable; like I understood it immediately, and felt for the first time legitimately like maybe I could be an artist too. I had similar encounters later with an epic Philip Guston painting; I had it peaking once into the microcosm of a Joseph Cornell box, I had it from following a trail of curious objects left behind by Marcel Broodthaers. I for a while idolised Robert Smithson. As a teenager I loved Silvia Plath and memorised some poems. I have complete reverence for Virginia Woolf. I for a time binged only on David Foster Wallace. I bought a Kurt Voneggut screen print that hangs over the Kitchen Table. I bought ever Super Furry Animals record. I had a Pavement phase. I love my friends Ed Atkins and Mark Leckey and Heather Phillipson’s work. The cultural black hole of Bedford keeps me routed as I can’t, as Alan Moore said of Northampton, get the velocity up to escape, and the influence of place can’t be under-estimated. My dad’s influence too, which I explore in Natural Selection. Cartoons maybe the single biggest influence, Wile E. Coyote, Bugs Bunny. Kids TV too. Reading Deleuze at college, reading Mark Fisher after college.  I’m a giant tangle of influences, for a time I feared I was just the total sum of all my influences, but now I have hopefully reached a point that I don’t really rely on them as much as I once clearly used to; or maybe there are now just so many that it’s hard to spot each of the ingredients in the murky brown mixture. Kanye West really kept me going for a while recently, the way he puts things together, but recently I had an allergic reaction and have weened myself off. I’m off to see Bob Dylan this evening at Hyde Park, I always promised myself I’d see him once, as of course at some stage he was an influence. In all honesty like most now my visual diet is weird clips on YouTube or Threads on Twitter and these are what get under my skin.

Andy Holden: Eyes in Space.

RB: What is the underlying focus of your work?

AH: The layer of strata at the bottom of all this, once all the sediment is scraped away? I’m still digging down and down, tunneling, trying to stop the inevitable synchronistic motion of things and enter into a more diachronic movement. However every time the spade strikes something blunt and hard I explain with glee, ‘the bottom, the bottom, the bed-rock’, I’ve arrived! – only to find it is just another rusty old chest or lump of slag from the anthropocene or worse still my memory; and the underlying matter is still deep below and I can still hear it rumbling. If one day I have exhausted the justifications, I have reached bedrock and my spade is turned. Then I am inclined to say: ‘This is simply what I do’. That last lines not mine, I just remembered it, after starting what I thought was an original metaphor, it’s a quote from Wittgenstein.

Andy Holden: Laws of Motion in a Cartoon Landscape, character study.

 

Andy Holden: Laws of Motion in a Cartoon Landscape, promo.

RB: You are taking part in the Science Gallery, London exhibition ‘Dark Matter: 95% of the Universe is missing’, with an immersive new installation ‘Laws of Motion in a Cartoon Landscape’. Can you say something about your involvement in this?

AH: I think in all honesty my involvement is a bit tenuous. Laws of Motion is as much about politics, economic and art as it is physics and really nothing to do with Dark Matter. It looks at Cartoon Logic, and re-writes the rules of the Cartoon World, based on O’Donnells laws of the Cartoon, but to try to explain that the world has now become a cartoon. This requires a quantum entanglement of physics with everything else, and makes claims that forces such as Gravity only take place when we are aware of them and so need to be linked to consciousness, and that all matter in the cartoon world is conscious and sentient.    It took six years to make it, and I finished it in 2016 just at the moment of Trump and Brexit and suddenly the notion the world was a cartoon has a more persuasive validity.

RB: You have stated that “an exploration of cartoon physics might help us understand the world we now inhabit”. Can you say more about this?

AH: If the world is now a cartoon, then the best way to understand it is to examine how physic and logic work in the very cartoons that first created this landscape, and how this new non-logical and physical space was created and able to be visualised. This is a diachronic movement, or Marxist premise; we look at how something was formed in order to understand how it now works. Cartoon physics was created by many things happening simultaneously; changes in theoretical physics – space-time changed, certainly were a major factor, but it wasn’t just a new understanding of the physical world that made this possible; simultaneously photography advanced, it became possible for images to move, Freud discovered the unconscious, Cinema created a new mass spectacle, modernism saw objects being split into artificial pieces as the whole was seemingly dismantled, and as speed increased understanding of the world shifted, and objects seemed to take on a life of their own. Law 1 is –  Any body suspended in space will remain in space until made aware of it situation. This for example, as the film shows, is a good way of explaining both the financial crash of 2008 and the method of the artist to make artwork in the world at the moment.  And in the last two years has been the go-to metaphor to explain almost every political moment from Brexit onwards, it’s an image entirely suited for our times; you won’t fall down until you look down. I wish I had collected every instance in which I had heard this analogy deployed on the news. Those that don’t look down are the only ones who can survive in the current moment. That’s why Bugs Bunny is who we need to aspire to, as he/she can navigate the landscape perfectly.

RB: In terms of the viewer, what are you trying to communicate with this work?

AH: At times the work feels close to the tone of a conspiracy theory video, and it should explain how a view of the world can be created and made plausible through the combination of otherwise unconnected elements, and make us aware of how easy this can be. And how in a space where it seems anything can happen not anything can, rules, or laws, are always being created. The work is 10,000 words spoken at the speed of a cartoon chase sequence, it is a cartoon of a lecture and a lecture on cartoons; it’s very hard to say something about the work that the work doesn’t already say.

Andy Holden: Cartharsis, ceramic cats, grandma collection, 2016

 

Andy Holden: Catharsis, ceramic cats, grandma collection, unboxing video, 2016

RB: In your view, what are the lines that connect art and science?

AH: Imagination and inquisitiveness are two major motorways between the two capital cities, but all lines connect to all other things, they are just more minor roads. We live inside an epic mesh, it’s just some lines become more dominant through more constant use, the ones we build service stations on. In the modern period we tried to make all disciplines appear separate and unconnected but this, even at the very first moment of the creation of the air-pump, as Bruno Latour shows us, was never really the case. Perhaps, to go back to the previous question, it’s to make this interconnectedness more visible that is part of what the work attempt to communicate.

Andy Holden: Pyramid Piece and Return of the Pyramid Piece, (knitted yarns, foam, steel, 3m x 4m x 5m) 2017, installation view Tate Britain, (photo credit: Andy Holden).

RB: What other projects are you currently working on?

AH: I’m actually a bit stuck right now. I’m running a small project space in Bedford, showing an exhibition I’ve curated called The Long Revolution, looking at change in the countryside since the enclosures act – from the poetry of John Clare as explored by Andrew Kotting to Mark Baumers death walking bare foot across America in 2016, however I have not had a single visitor to the show in three weeks. I have written a new pop album with the Grubby Mitts but we can find a record label after I folded the little label I used to run as it was suffering the same fate as the project space now is. My dad and I are collaborating on a project about bird migration routes for a performance in February, and our collaborative exhibition Natural Selection is currently on show at Bristol Museum until September and so that should give me some studio time to scratch around and feel out what the next project might be. I now unfortunately can no longer kid myself how long it takes me to make a large scale new project, four years is a quick one, although other things I can do quicker. So it is just little more digging until I’m able to just say, hopefully; this is simply what I do.

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https://andyholdenartist.com/

All images copyright and courtesy of Andy Holden

The post Cartoon Logic appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

On the Surface

Richard Bright: Can we begin by you saying something about your background?

Rachel Pimm: I have a pretty straightforward background in Fine Art. I studied an undergraduate Fine Art degree at Central Saint Martins in a discipline called 4D which was developed from a blend of Critical Fine Art practice, film studies and then performative and video practice- all the extras to painting and sculpture. Then I started a project space called Auto Italia, which is still going, and went on to a postgraduate MFA programme at Goldsmiths. Those initial feelers into curating, which also included a curatorial internship at the ICA and a short stint after working in the department, have now morphed into more of a collaborative practice, where I invite people to do projects with me.

I wasn’t born in the UK though, my family are white Rhodesian and I came here from Harare, Zimbabwe in 1986- shortly after independence from Britain. This perhaps affects my interests in ways I haven’t yet unpacked, but It certainly gives me plenty to work on and address in terms of my own relationship to the world as a European settler thinking about land management and colonial histories.

Lori E Allen: My background is in social science with a Bachelors in Anthropology, Classical Studies, and Ancient Latin from New York University and a Masters in Archaeology from University College London. I never trained formally in fine art or music but when living in New York began a very low key experimental type of art practice around media archaeology. This began as a method of chopping up broad-casted media in real time to extract concurrent narratives across television networks, and took the form of a weekly public access television series. I then expanded that focus to include field recordings and began focusing more on sound and sound scape than image. My practice is still generally very low key in that I while I do make solo work it’s mostly for my own amusement, and I prefer a collaborative approach in creative work.

RP: when Lori and I work together we are good at thinking about larger scales than I do on my own- humans, animals, time, place. Lori is very technical and I do admin 😉 I’m only half joking. We have made performance together since 2015. You can listen to worming out of shit performed at the Chisenhale Gallery in 2015 here and Disintegration, performed at the Whitechapel Gallery earlier this year, here.

Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm: Disintegration, Whitechapel Gallery, 2019

Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm: worming out of shit, 2015, performed at CCA Glasgow, 2016

Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm: Disintegration, Whitechapel Gallery, 2019

RB: Have there been any particular influences to your art practice?

RP: For a short while I did a full time office job at the Ideal Home Show, designing and specifying the model home village at the show – then building show houses inside Earl’s Court. For me, not only is this display format just as interesting historically as gallery exhibition, its lineage can be traced via British Colonial histories to the Crystal Palace, botanical gardens, raw materials, the industrial revolution and housing after the Garden City movement- really rich (and violent) contexts for the relationship between stuff we take from the ground and the systems of engineering and capitalism that surround its movement and processing.

I’m also influenced by Natural History. I find old books and go to libraries a lot – the Geological Society, Linnean Society, Bournemouth Natural Science Society library, the Teri Institute in New Delhi, and then gardens and greenhouses, physics evening classes, kids science kits, conversations and study days with friends, and strolling around, taking photos of infrastructure space, and ways in which ‘Nature’ is being put to work. I learn a lot from living with houseplants about care, and time and growing.

LEA: For me it’s probably studying archaeology that has influenced me most. I like thinking about and witnessing the ways people, myself included, interact with and build relationships with inanimate objects – of which I would also class mass media. There is so much story-telling in the scars, rips, wear and tear of a thing. Yet the thing is silent while retaining a record of events it’s undergone.  Conversely, mass media is not silent. I think the pull from the mute objects to the noise of constructed narratives led me to think more about noise and silence in internal dialogue, where it comes from, what records it holds  – and I suppose focusing on broad-casted media, especially the way it is told/digested/re-told/re-digested is a way of getting at/excavating the noise and silence of objects embedded in narrative rather than the earth.

RB: What is the underlying focus of your work?

RP: I suppose what things are made of, how things work, and how they change the environment are my primary focuses. I find the idea of the surface of something especially interesting because this is the place where the change visibly happens. Also because everything material comes from the surface of the earth. The theory conversations around materialism where they combine with climate activist, feminist, queer, crip or anti-racist work are part of what engages me in this and the desire to understand the environment through structures other than Cartesian western patriarchal power.

LEA: I’m really interested in mass behaviours, ritual, and taboo how they generate, what they come from, how enduring they are, and what influences rate of change. Rachel and my underlying interests are really different in this way, but her focus on material and the surface of the earth I have found to be a really good way round again to approach such questions. It is literally from the ground up and makes human society kind of less important – which is a relief.

RP: and Lori helps me think of ways to create narratives around images and sound. She’s a good storyteller and while I’ll Wikipedia something or buy something, she’ll just get on and make a test. Lori is very unafraid of trying something even if it sounds hard or stupid, because doing it mechanically almost always works something out.

Rachel Pimm photographing landscape at Dallol in the Afar Triangle, 2019

RB: In 2018 you were involved in the project ‘Experiments in Art & Science’, a collaboration between Kettle’s Yard and The Gurdon Institute in Cambridge. Can you say something about your work in this?

RP: I had a period of around 9 months where I was supported by a stipend and was given fantastic access to the genetics labs run by Eric Miska at the Gurdon Institute who had approached the art partners to be able to make a project with no fixed outcome, refreshingly. I was matched with some scientists whose research I could engage with and rather than being a project, it became more of a change of practice and an opportunity to learn and reflect. I read a lot, and used much of my production time and fee to collate a lovely library of rare and specific books on morphology, geology, biology, and also go on field trips to archives to see the lineage of the research into morphology- through fish and worms. I learnt some amazing things- like that transgenerational traumas are chemical in cells, that from suboptimal exposure to environments that suppress life (and those survived by ancestors) sit in a protein you can dye and actually see under the microscope in the RNi. That’s how life forms become resilient. That is mind blowing. I also now understand that ALL patterns of growth and shapes in nature are connected in a spectrum, and that this is due to chemistry and physics at a cellular level, also completely amazing and an overhaul of my thought process.

Rachel Pimm and Emilia Santos at the Gurdon Institute Cichlid Aquarium, production Morpho Chemical, 2018 (Experiments in Art and Science  residency, Cambridge University and Kettles Yard)

Rachel Pimm at St Andrews University Special Collections library, production for Morpho Chemical, 2018-19 (Experiments in Art and Science residency, Cambridge University and Kettles Yard)

Rachel Pimm at Giants Causeway, Northern Ireland, production for Morpho Chemical, 2018-19 (Experiments in Art and Science  residency, Cambridge University and Kettles Yard)

I’ve since also been lucky enough to do more labwork, including some photomicroscopy, with Radar, in Loughborough at the Chemical Engineering department.

SEM microscope samples from Afar triangle fieldwork, production for S, Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm, 2019 (Radar residency, Loughborough University)

RB: You are taking part in the Science Gallery, London exhibition ‘Dark Matter: 95% of the Universe is missing’. Can you say something about your involvement in this?

RP: I was approached to work on a set of new elements in the Periodic Table- which is one of my catalogues of collaborations, and I approached Lori E Allen to come on a very amazing field trip to the Afar triangle triple rift junction in Ethiopia and make work together in response to Sulfur. This has since turned into a project about alchemy- we’ll be doing a performance at a late event, and then showing S and Hg at an event on August 7th. I recorded mainly images and Lori recorded mainly sound but we will fully collaborate on the works in the events.

LEA: I was invited by Rachel Pimm to take part in this project, which follows from a previous work we did with the material from Ethiopia, linked above :)!

S, Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm, 2019 (Dallol)

S, Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm, 2019 (Lava fields at Erta Ale crater)

RB: In terms of the viewer, what are you trying to communicate in this exhibition?

RP: Art doesn’t have to communicate. That’s one of the great privileges about making it.

LEA: I agree with Rachel’s comment above and would add that in my experience it’s very hard to control that aspect in the first place as well as limiting the opportunity of a work to communicate how it will or won’t with anyone seeking to engage with it.

RP: Maybe you can learn and control some of the tools at your disposal so you can take a didactic political position where needed or get people thinking on a particular track, like when we talk about the use of vocal samples.

LEA: Hmm. yeah. But even so what you want to communicate may not translate the way you expect it to, and that’s kind of the best part about a work becoming organic/non static

RP: But aside from this, we want to show people the images and sounds we experienced when we went off to investigate sulfur as an element important for life forms. We have looked at a lot of Alchemy practices and cultural references of burning hell holes (Sodom and Gomorroh! Volcano Deities!) and tried to incorporate those alongside harder sciences like  geology and chemistry. We think it will be messier than the show itself, perhaps more true to the way matter operates.

RB: In your view, what are the lines that connect art and science?

RP: Both seem to be about trial and error, failure, learning and experiments. Art can change form part way through though, methodologies can be really sloppy compared to the science. In both making and in publishing- peer review matters to both, but I find science a bit of a straight-jacket and would want to work on more things at once, not finish things, do things incorrectly or whatever. I have a lot of respect for the focus of scientists. Artists working with scientists have the pleasure of finding out facts and then ignoring them entirely if they want. I imagine scientists like the lateral thinking opportunity to flex their ideas. Sometimes scientists actually want an illustrator, which is a misunderstanding. Illustration is a whole other, also very interesting thing. But that’s not what artists do well.

LEA: Both are linked by inquiry of the observed or experienced and function in similar ways in the quest for understanding a thing, a relationship, a process, a being. While the scientific method is robust and disciplined this can have limitations. Similarly, so can art.

Lori E Allen making contact microphone and hydroponic sound recordings on a field trip in the Afar triangle, 2019

Rachel Pimm looking at Lava Rock samples, Erta Ale crater, Afar triangle, 2019

Geological samples and AV equipment on a field trip in the Afar triangle Lori E Allen and Rachel Pimm, 2019

RB: What other projects are you currently working on?

RP: I have a performance coming up making some music using cash crops and plants that are domesticated at the Serpentine Gallery and am working on a menu of earth-based food for an event in Lincoln at Mansions of the Future around the practice of Geophagy.

LEA: I have vinyl coming out soon with my band from a piece we did for the Tate Modern a couple of years ago. I am working with another artist producing soundscape compositions for a performance work investigating medical imaging, for which I will also produce the soundtrack for a short film version of the work. Perhaps what I’m currently most excited about is a children’s book.

RP: We have made a start working on a video project about Salt- its geology, history, production, trade and processing. That was an unexpectedly big part of what we saw in the Afar triangle and there are a lot of leads to follow. It was bigger than the elements so it has become its own project.

Lori E Allen making sound recordings on a field trip at Lake Asale in the Afar triangle, 2019

Rachel Pimm sampling lake salt crystals during a field trip at Lake Asale in the Afar triangle, 2019

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All images copyright and courtesy of Rachel Pimm and Lori E Allen

 

The post On the Surface appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

There’s more to this than meets the eye

Yu-Chen Wang at CCCB 2019 Arts at CERN

Richard Bright: Can we begin by you saying something about your background?

Yu-Chen Wang: I’m originally from Taiwan and I’ve lived and worked in the UK for quite some time… actually next week, it would be 19 years exactly. I was trained as a designer, specialising in visual communication. When I moved to London, by chance I went on to study art at Goldsmiths and I’ve worked as a practicing artist ever since.

RB: Have there been any particular influences to your art practice?

Y-CW: One of the major influences is my life experience in and between Taiwan and the UK. For a long time, I try to understand Britain/Britishness – I treat it almost like an ongoing research project. I have travelled extensively and actively undertaken artist-in-residence in different regions as a way to explore local histories and meeting new people. In a way, I’m taking the opportunity to learn more about the country and trying to make up what I don’t know or I haven’t had a chance to experience previously.

Funny enough, I start to think there’s an urge for me to do similar things in Taiwan. Not only I feel like there’s a lot I need to catch up, but also to discover something completely different – because I’ve been away for so long, I would approach things quite differently now. Also with Taiwan’s colonial past and the dictatorship, only in recent years a lot of untold histories begin to merge and being talked about. It’s like getting to know Taiwan in a new way.

Quantum In Search of the Invisible catalogue, 2019 CCCB

RB: What is the underlying focus of your work?

Y-CW: I see my work very much focuses on research and process, experience and relationship. There’s a particular way for developing my work, which often involves a period of time spent in a specific place. I would then undertake extensive research the contextual histories and engage with a group of locally-based people or specialists who would assist my research. Two major components I’d like to explore generally: the archives and archaeology, which form the main source of inspiration for developing my work.

I have spent a lot of time in various archives going through documents, photos and footage. Often I find myself working like a historian trying to interpret documentations – it’s a form of storytelling. I am fascinated by the archival materials, as they are of the past, from another period of time, not now not my time, someone else’s memory… often in this context, the use of technology for documentation becomes particularly interesting.

Sometimes I think I work like an archaeologist exploring various heritage sites (historic landmarks, abandoned places, ruins or sites for regeneration projects…) and objects (remains in historic sites, artifacts in the museum collections, at abandoned places or junk yards…). Not necessary taking part in physical digging or excavations, but I would look for tangible evidence to further expand the missing narratives from interpreting archives.

Often I would engage with a group of people helping with my research. They’re the catalysts for me to connect to places and to unfold stories. It is important to form a relationship with the group; through repeated meetings, a lot of rich materials would naturally come out, they’re original and potentially very inspirational. I guess that’s a very important part of my practice – knowledge exchange. Through this exchange, a new network is formed for connecting people and places and telling (new) stories – that’s how I make work.

Yu-Chen Wang: There’s more to this than meets the eye, 2019 (detail) pencil on paper 2100 x 1310mm

RB: Drawing is central to your practice. How would you define your approach to drawing and its process?

Y-CW: For me, making drawing is very much about the process, various acts of accumulating, rendering, processing and reflecting. Before I make drawings, I collect a lot of images related to whatever project I’m working on, often from the archives, sometimes from my own camera. I don’t make sketches or preparatory drawings – I would just draw as if the pencil lines organically growing and spraying out on the paper. I make drawings on the table, often some part of the paper is rolled up due to the limited studio space and the size of my table. In a way it’s problematic as I’m very close to the paper and I don’t get a chance to see the entire drawing until I finish the work or when the drawing is being exhibited in the gallery. It’s a deliberate decision, as I try to condition the way I work and in the hope of opening up something that is more intuitive and less controlled.

Yu-Chen Wang: We aren’t able to prove that just yet, but we know it’s out there? 2018-19 installation view at CCCB.

Yu-Chen Wang: We aren’t able to prove that just yet, but we know it’s out there? 2018-19 installation view at CCCB.

RB: Can you say something about your work We aren’t able to prove that just yet, but we know it’s out there?

Y-CW: As part of Collide International Awards (2016-18), a partnership between Arts at CERN and FACT, the piece is a direct response to my visit to CERN, conversations I had with physicists there and also the ones in Liverpool.

Inspired by 60’s Bubble Chamber experiment, my work develops a poetic narrative of the histories of recent science: establishing parallel lines between my drawing of apparatus, meetings with physicists and scientific documents found in the archives. Comprising multilayered imageries and voices, We aren’t able to prove that just yet… is a collage of history and fiction, documentation and interpretation.

Over the 2-year EU touring, the work is evolving and has been developed into multiple versions with different languages and spatial arrangements for each venue. The piece have been shown at FACT, Liverpool last year and is currently on show at CCCB, Barcelona and will later travel to iMAL, Brussels and le lieu unique, Nantes. https://arts.cern/artist/yu-chen-wang

Yu-Chen Wang: We aren’t able to prove that just yet, but we know it’s out there? 2018-19 installation view at FACT

RB: You’re taking part in the Science Gallery, London exhibition ‘Dark Matter: 95% of the Universe is missing’. Can you say something about your involvement in this?

Y-CW: The experience of developing CERN-inspired project worked as a foundation for creating this new commission. I was very excited about further expanding what I was researching from quantum to cosmic, from particle physics to astrophysics, a more multi-disciplinary approach. https://london.sciencegallery.com/seasons/dark-matter/exhibition/theres-more-it-meets-eye

Yu-Chen Wang: There’s more to this than meets the eye, 2019 (still)

Yu-Chen Wang: There’s more to this than meets the eye, 2019

I also took part in a panel discussion together with the exhibition adviser and physicist Malcolm Fairbairn (who is also one of the scientists I have interviewed), philosopher Eleanor Knox, chaired by science presenter Helen Arney (also my collaborator, who has delivered the voice over for my piece). It was brilliant that the speakers are from very different fields and to have conversation about scientific truth and the limitation of human knowledge. When we don’t know how to answer the question, turning ourselves to thinking philosophical seems necessary and perhaps helpful. https://london.sciencegallery.com/events/dark-matter-void

RB: In terms of the viewer, what are you trying to communicate in this exhibition?

Y-CW: I wrote the script using a first person’s voice as a reflection of my journey of exploring science – visiting labs, speaking to various physicists, investing scientific images and documentations. The voiceover is delivered by Helen Arney, whose performance was brilliant and humorous, absolutely animates my inner thoughts. Using wireless headphones with music and surround sound effect designed by Capitol K, I’m trying to create an intimate experience of one-to-one moment between the audience and my work. This way of storytelling also shows my approach to science: I almost become a researcher myself adapting certain scientific methods, collecting, analysing and trying to build new experiments and run tests in order to understand more and to make sense of everything.

Yu-Chen Wang: There’s more to this than meets the eye, 2019 (still)

RB: In your view, what are the lines that connect art and science?

Y-CW: Both fields are about asking questions, exploring some unknown territories and looking for something new. These are places where no one has been to or no one knows how to get there. They definitely involve certain level of risk-taking and overcoming endless failures, and most importantly they need to be able to communicate, not just within the community, but to the general public.

In the case of art and physics, it’s interesting that both are trying to make the invisible visible and trying to see differently.

Yu-Chen Wang: There’s more to this than meets the eye, 2019 (still)

RB: What other projects are you currently working on?

Y-CW: I’m continuing to develop the work for Collide International Awards’ touring programme. For the exhibition in Brussels, this evolving piece will have a new life and will be presented in response to the gallery space and local audiences.

I’m working on a couple of projects inspired by the industrial heritage, such as canals in Birmingham and railway in Doncaster. I will work with local community to produce new work in response to the future urban regeneration. Another project in Taipei I will explore the relationship between art and the increasing information-driven technology and the influences on our day to day life.

………………….

www.yuchenwang.com

All images copyright and courtesy of Yu-Chen Wang

The post There’s more to this than meets the eye appeared first on Interalia Magazine.

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